The relevance of the study is due to the need to clarify the semantic core of the sociocultural frontier Tertius Romae. The theoretical construct Tertius Romae by Mark Cicero has undergone semantic transformations throughout history. It acquires various meanings of political and geographical ambitions, including the ideas of "Moscow is the Third Rome" and "Third Reich", the connotations of Christian sacral and eschatological expectations, the form of the core of the idea of national sovereignty, world domination, the global economy and, finally, the global virtual world.
The purpose of the study is to determine the historical stages of the evolution of the socio-cultural frontier Tertius Romae.
Apart from the time time when the construct Tertius Romae appeared in the work of Cicero, we also distinguish three global stages of its evolution: sacred (5th – 16th centuries), secular (16th – 20th centuries) and virtual (starting from the 21st century).
If during a long sacred stage, the control centers form the semantic core of the Tertius Romae frontier, then at the subsequent stages they actively exploit it. The concept of a socio-cultural frontier in the new digital reality acquires the meaning of the moving boundaries of a technologically backward periphery, dependent on a more developed metropolis, providing communication services, regulating information content and ensuring information security. The theoretical construct, once tied to a territory and a certain form of government, is now acquiring the meaning of virtual power, and socio-cultural frontier is more due to the quality of communication and the power of the final equipment.
Adams, P. C. (1997). Cyberspace and Virtual Places. Geographical Review, 87(2), 155. https://doi.org/10.2307/216003
Akhiezer, A. S. (1997). Russia: A Critique of Historical Experience. Т. 1: Socio-Cultural Dynamics of Russia. Dictionary. The Siberian Chronograph. (In Russian).
Akhiezer, A. S. (1998). Russia: A Critique of Historical Experience. Т. 2: Theory and Methodology. Dictionary. The Siberian Chronograph. (In Russian).
Aliev, R. T. (2016a). The frontier archetypes of american comics (the example of Superman and Guardians of the galaxy). Journal of Frontier Studies, 1, 126–133. (In Russian).
Aliev, R. T. (2016b). The problem of Yurt Tatars' ethnic identity. Journal of Frontier Studies, 3, 39–51. (In Russian).
Alwin, D. F., Felmlee, D. H., & Kreager, D. A. (Eds.). (2018). Social Networks and the Life Course: Integrating the Development of Human Lives and Social Relational Networks (Vol. 2). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71544-5
Astafieva, O. N., Nikonorova, E. V., & Shlykova, O. V. (2018). Culture in the Digital Civilization: A New Stage in Understanding the Future Strategy for Sustainable Development. Observatory of culture, 15(5), 516–531. https://doi.org/10.25281/2072-3156-2018-15-5-516-531 (In Russian).
Bakumenko, G. V. (2015). The process of symbolisation of success as a principle of spatial-medial orientation of the elements of socio-cultural systems. Politics and society, 7, 964–977. https://doi.org/10.7256/1812-8696.2015.7.14468 (In Russian).
Bakumenko, G. V. (2019). The symbolisation of success in contemporary cinema [PhD thesis in cultural studies]. Krasnodar State Institute of Culture, D.S. Likhachev Russian Research Institute of Cultural and Natural Heritage, Crimean University, Culture, Arts and Tourism. (In Russian).
Bakumenko, G. V. (2021). Value Dynamics of Success Symbols: Based on Film Distribution Statistics. Sam Polygraphist Ltd.. (In Russian).
Bakumenko, G. V., Ustrizhitsky, O. V., & Gritskevich, V. P. (2020). On the practical relevance of the theoretical construct “sociocultural frontier”. Cultural life in Southern Russia, 2, 127–131. (In Russian).
Balatsky, E. V. (2019). Global Challenges of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Terra Economicus, 17(2), 6‑22. https://doi.org/10.23683/2073-6606-2019-17-2-6-22 (In Russian).
Bales, K. (2012). Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy, Updated with a New Preface. University of California Press.
Basu, G. K. (2001). Globalisation, Virtualisation and Global Politics: A Critical Perspective. The Indian Journal of Political Science, 62(3), 359–373.
Bauer, E. A. (2011). The Idea of “Moscow-Third Rome” in Russian Social Thought in the Late 15th – Early 17th Centuries: Domestic Historiography of the 20th Century. Nizhnevartovsk Humanitarian University Press. (In Russian).
Blount, P. J. (2016). Reprogramming the world: Cyberspace and the geography of global order [PhD Thesis, Rutgers University – Graduate School – Newark]. https://doi.org/10.7282/T3KK9F01
Borgatti, S. P. (2019). Social Networks at Work (D. J. Brass, Ed.). Taylor & Francis.
Bowman, R. L. (1998). Life on the electronic frontier: The application of technology to group work. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 23(4), 428–445. https://doi.org/10.1080/01933929808411411
Budraitskis, I. (2021). The apocalypse and the politics of the impossible. Logos, 31(4), 193–218. https://doi.org/10.22394/0869-5377-2021-4-193-215 (In Russian).
Chirun, S. N., & Bobrova, E. A. (2018). Gender Peculiarities of Political Participation in Postmodern Russia. Woman in Russian Society, 2 (87), 104–115. https://doi.org/10.21064/WinRS.2018.2.9 (In Russian).
Chojnicka, K. (2008). Narodziny rosyjskiej doktryny państwowej: Zoe Paleolog-między Bizancjum, Rzymem a Moskwą [The birth of Russian state doctrine: Zoe the Paleologist-between Byzantium, Rome and Moscow]. Collegium Columbinum. (In Polish).
Cicero, M. T. (1994). Dialogues (S. L. Utchenko, Ed.). Nauka; Ladomir. (In Russian).
Colomer, J. M. (2007). Great empires, small nations: The uncertain future of the sovereign state. Routledge.
Corke-Webster, J. (2019). Eusebius and Empire: Constructing Church and Rome in the Ecclesiastical History. Cambridge University Press.
Craig, R. T. (2009). Reflection on “Communication Theory as a Field”. Communiquer. Revue de Communication Sociale et Publique, 2, 7–12. https://doi.org/10.4000/communiquer.346
Csermely, P. (2009). Weak links: The universal key to the stability of networks and complex systems. Springer.
D’Agostino, G., & Scala, A. (Eds.). (2014). Networks of Networks: The Last Frontier of Complexity. Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-03518-5
Debrix, F. (1999). Re-envisioning peacekeeping: The United Nations and the mobilization of ideology (Vol. 13). University of Minnesota Press.
Denisov, E. I. (2019). Robots, artificial intelligence, augmented and virtual reality: ethical, legal and hygienic issues. Hygiene and sanitation, 98(1), 5–10. https://doi.org/10.18821/0016-9900-2019-98-1-5-10 (In Russian).
Dovbysh, E. G. (2016). Electronic frontier as a metaphor. Journal of Frontier Studies, 1, 100–115. (In Russian).
Dyakov, S. I. (2016). Semantic constructs of personality subjective self-organization. Psycholinguistic issues, 27, 89–104. (In Russian).
Edwards, M. (1999). Roads from the Ashes: An Odyssey in Real Life on the Virtual Frontier. Trilogy Books.
Fedorchenko, S. N. (2017). Political identities in social networks of the internet. Bulletin of Perm University. Political Science, 2, 29–46. https://doi.org/10.17072/2218-1067-2017-2-29-46 (In Russian).
Filatov, A. S. (2016). Russia's Historical Mission in Light of the Third Rome Concept. Paradigms of History and Social Development, 4, 72–79. (In Russian).
Fischbach, R. (2017). Rereading the Qur’ān and challenging traditional authority: Political implications of Qur’ān hermeneutics. The Journal of the Middle East and Africa, 8(1), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/21520844.2017.1289327
Fried, T. (2020). Mecklenburg and the Third Rome — the Evocation of Empire. Vestnik of St Petersburg University. History, 65(2), 584–604. https://doi.org/10.21638/11701/spbu02.2020.215 (In Russian).
Frieden, J. A., Lake, D. A., & Broz, J. L. (2017). International Political Economy: Perspectives on Global Power and Wealth. W. W. Norton & Company.
Friesen, S. J. (2004). Myth and Symbolic Resistance in Revelation 13. Journal of Biblical Literature, 123(2), 281. https://doi.org/10.2307/3267946
Geister, Ph., & Hallonsten, G. (Eds.). (2021). Faithful Interpretations: Truth and Islam in Catholic Theology of Religions (Vol. 2). The Catholic University of America Press.
Gorlova, I. I., Bakumenkov, G. V., & Kovalenko, T. V. (2017). History as a Cultural Text: Towards a Method of Interpreting Symbols of Success in Culture. Law and practice, 1, 183–188. (In Russian).
Heim, L. L. (2021). Rewriting the Nation: German-Turkish Transformations of the Bildungsroman. Journal of Frontier Studies, 6(2), 37–67. https://doi.org/10.46539/jfs.v6i2.291
Hermida, O. V., & Casas-Mas, B. (2020). The virtualization of communications with relatives. Journal of Family Studies, 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1080/13229400.2019.1709531
Ivanov, S. (2021). Catherine the Great’s Byzantium. Quaestio Rossica, 9(2). https://doi.org/10.15826/qr.2021.2.602 (In Russian).
Jänchen, A. (2021). Border Crossing and Self-Placement of Characters with a Migratory Background in Contemporary German Novels. Journal of Frontier Studies, 6(2), 85–102. https://doi.org/10.46539/jfs.v6i2.290
Kallis, A. (2012). The “Third Rome” of Fascism: Demolitions and the Search for a New Urban Syntax. The Journal of Modern History, 84(1), 40–79. https://doi.org/10.1086/663287
Khabibullina, Z. R. (2019). Taking selfies in Mecca: haram or still the venerable Hajj? Siberian Historical Studies, 2, 85–107. https://doi.org/10.17223/2312461X/24/5 (In Russian).
Khlyshcheva, E. V. (2018). The frontier of identities: the problem of cultural borders. Journal of Frontier Studies, 2, 61–69. https://doi.org/10.24411/2500-0225-2018-00009 (In Russian).
Khrapov, N. P. (2020). Using virtualization technologies to protect software and data in volunteer computing systems. Vestnik of St Petersburg University. Applied Mathematics. Computer Science. Control Processes, 16(1), 62–72. https://doi.org/10.21638/11701/spbu10.2020.106 (In Russian).
Kirillina, L. V. (2012). Sarti, Euripides and the Third Rome. Scientific Bulletin of the Moscow State Conservatory, 1, 12–41. (In Russian).
Kolaczyk, E. D. (2017). Topics at the Frontier of Statistics and Network Analysis:(re) visiting the Foundations. Cambridge University Press.
Kryukov, A. V. (2019). Religious Dissent in the Frontier Zone: Ways and Means of Dissemination (The Kuban Region and the Black Sea Province in the Pre-Soviet Period as a Case Stude). Journal of Frontier Studies, 3, 61–82. https://doi.org/10.24411/2500-0225-2019-10019 (In Russian).
Kudryashova, Yu. A. (2016). The role of the missionary stations in the dissemination of european models of education in West Africa in the second half of the nineteenth century. Journal of Frontier Studies, 1, 44–56. (In Russian).
Kulakov, V. O. (2016). North provinces of Iran in the history of russian frontier in the Caspian region. Journal of Frontier Studies, 1, 57–66. (In Russian).
Kurdybaylo, D. S. (2018). On Symbols and Symbolism in Eusebius’ of Caesarea Demonstratio Evangelica. Vestnik of the Orthodox Svyato-Tikhonovsky University of Humanities. Series I: Theology. Philosophy. Religious Studies, 78, 11–27. https://doi.org/10.15382/sturI201878.11-27 (In Russian).
Lee, H., Choi, Y., Van Nguyen, T., Hai, Y., Kim, J., Bahja, M., & Hocaoğlu, H. (2020). COVID19 Led Virtualization: Green Data Center for Information Systems Research. Information Systems Management, 37(4), 272–276. https://doi.org/10.1080/10580530.2020.1818901
Li, Y., & Cui, Q. (2017). Airline energy efficiency measures using the Virtual Frontier Network RAM with weak disposability. Transportation Planning and Technology, 40(4), 479–504. https://doi.org/10.1080/03081060.2017.1300244
Liu, J., Huang, T., Xin, Y., Zhang, J., Yu, F. R., & Liu, Y. (2016). VLAN-reusing: A novel solution for efficient network virtualization. Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, 22(4), 543–549. https://doi.org/10.1080/10798587.2016.1152779
Ludlow, P. (1996). High noon on the electronic frontier: Conceptual issues in cyberspace. MIT Press.
Luginina, A. G. (2020). Searching for Meanings: Actualization of Non-Verbal Experience through Fine Art. Heritage of Centuries, 1, 105–113. https://doi.org/10.36343/SB.2020.21.1.010 (In Russian).
Mazzucato, M. (2020). The Value of Everything. PublicAffairs Books.
Miller, L. (1995). Women and Children First: Gender and the Settling of the Electronic Frontier. In J. Brook & I. Boal (Eds.), Resisting the Virtual Life: The Culture and Politics of Information (1st ed., pp. 49–57). City Lights.
Panarin, I. N. (2003). Information warfare and the Third Rome. Bayard. (In Russian).
Pivovarov, Y. S. (1993). Russia's Political Culture and Political System: From the Adoption of Christianity to the Petrine Reforms. World of Russia. Sociology. Ethnology, 2(1), 184–212. (In Russian).
Plotichkina, N. V. (2018). Mythology of the electronic frontier. Herald of N.I. Lobachevsky Nizhny Novgorod University. Series: Social Sciences, 1, 80–88. (In Russian).
Plotichkina, N. V., & Dovbysh, E. G. (2017). Network frontier as a metaphor and myth. RUDN Journal of Sociology, 17(1), 51–62. https://doi.org/10.22363/2313-2272-2017-17-1-51-62 (In Russian).
Popper, K. (1992). The Open Society and its Enemies: In 2 vols. (V. N. Sadovsky, Ed.). Cultural Initiative, Phoenix. (In Russian).
Postigo, H. (2008). Capturing Fair use for the YouTube Generation: The Digital Rights Movement, the Electronic Frontier Foundation and the User-Centered Framing of Fair Use. Information, Communication & Society, 11(7), 1008–1027. https://doi.org/10.1080/13691180802109071
Pronkina, E. S. (2015). On representations of same-sex love in the media. Business. Society. Government, 23, 73–83. (In Russian).
Reda, N. (2010). Holistic Approaches to the Qur’an: A Historical Background: Holistic Approaches to the Qur’an. Religion Compass, 4(8), 495–506. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-8171.2010.00233.x
Rheingold, H. (2000). The Virtual Community, revised edition: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier. MIT press.
Schwab, K. (2017). The fourth industrial revolution. Crown Business.
Šilhavá, G. (2021). Migration Experiences in Selected Works by Stanislav Struhar. Journal of Frontier Studies, 6(2), 16–36. https://doi.org/10.46539/jfs.v6i2.303
Sinelnikova, L. N. (2020). The conceptual environment of the frontier discourse in humanities. Russian journal of linguistics, 24(2), 467–492. https://doi.org/10.22363/2687-0088-2020-24-2-467-492 (In Russian).
Skiba, K. V. (2016). The death of the “major duke of temirgoys” Dzhambulat Dolotokov near fortress Prochnyi okop in october of 1836. Journal of Frontier Studies, 3, 52–77. (In Russian).
Smirnov, S., & Yablokova, E. (2019). Anthropological Boundaries of Humanitarian Expertise. Philosophical anthropology, 5(1), 26–44. https://doi.org/10.21146/2414-3715-2019-5-1-26-44 (In Russian).
Takacs, S. J., & Freiden, J. B. (1998). Changes on the Electronic Frontier: Growth and Opportunity of the World-Wide Web. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 6(3), 24–37. https://doi.org/10.1080/10696679.1998.11501802
Tedeeva, T. T. (2021). Cultural-historical meanings of the Third Rome. Man and Culture, 3, 111–127. https://doi.org/10.25136/2409-8744.2021.3.32321 (In Russian).
Thomas, D. (1998). Criminality on the electronic frontier: Corporality and the judicial construction of the hacker. Information, Communication & Society, 1(4), 382–400. https://doi.org/10.1080/13691189809358979
Vashcheva, I. Y. (2018). Eusebius of Caesarea's “Ecclesiastical History”: Terminology and Issues of Ethnocultural Identity on the Threshold of the Middle Ages. Issues of history, philology and culture, 1, 169–183. (In Russian).
Vitevitch, M. S. (2019). Network Science in Cognitive Psychology. Routledge.
Yang, Zh., Fang, H., & Xue, X. (2021). Sustainable efficiency and CO2 reduction potential of China’s construction industry: Application of a three-stage virtual frontier SBM-DEA model. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/13467581.2020.1869019
Yıldız-Alanbay, Ş. (2021). The Politics of Virtual Security. Spectra, 8(1), 35. https://doi.org/10.21061/spectra.v8i1.164
Zayakina, R. A. (2017a). Real Network Design: Static Structural Descriptor. Scientific Notes of the V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University. Philosophy. Political science. Cultural Studies, 3(4). (In Russian).
Zayakina, R. A. (2017b). The Topology of the Entrepreneurial University: A Dynamic Descriptive Model. Higher education in Russia, 7, 69–78. (In Russian).
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.