Semantic diversity of images of the Indian in New England in the XVIII century
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Image of the Indian, the Other, Alien, Native Americans, Symbols, New England, Pennsylvania, Boston Tea party.

How to Cite

1. Якушенков С. Semantic diversity of images of the Indian in New England in the XVIII century // Journal of Frontier Studies. 2017. № 3. C. 82-98.


The article is devoted to the transformation of the image of the Indian in the perception of the American colonists of New England in the 18th century. Intercultural communication of Whites with Native Americans took a wide variety of forms: from the peaceful coexistence of Penn’s Quakers with the Delaware, to the massacre of the Susquehannock tribe (Conestoga) by Paxton Boys. The Seven-year war in America and the Pontiac rebellion hurt painfully the inhabitants of the Frontier territory, who were forced to reflect constantly the raids of the Indians or participate in the military operations of the British army against the Native Americans. In some cases, hatred for the Indians was so great that the white colonists spared neither women nor children, and in some cases risked themselves in the spreading of smallpox among the Native Americans.

All this complicates the answer to the question of why in many cases the colonists resorted to the image of an Indian to express their interests. Often, this image served to hide their true face, portray themselves as antisocial wild Indians, and not good colonists. But at the same time the Indian turned out to be a symbol of “Americanness”, belonging to American culture, which is opposed to English traditions and the British crown. Boston Tea Party may act as an example of such a model of behavior. Especially indicative is the fact that the relationship with the Indians in the Colony of Massachusetts was not so rosy as in Pennsylvania. However, here again revolutionary slogans were often filled with Indian symbolism. All this shows that the Indian as the Other constantly occupied the entire semantic field, acting then as an enemy, then as a friend, as an ally and as a pattern to follow. This article is only the first part, which deals with the issue of the symbolism of the Alien (on the example of the Indian image) in the American cultural context of New England. In the second part of the article, examples from the history of New England of the 18th century will be considered. with the use of the image of the Indian both in the context of European holiness, and modern traditions of the use of Indian symbolism in American sport.

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